When it comes to the march of technology, the accepted narrative ranks Silicon Valley at the forefront of discovery and innovation, while relegating China to the subsidiary role of mass fulfilment. It’s a view that’s supported by the operational companies like Apple, whose Cupertino campus incorporates the R&D base that allows it to badge products with the ‘designed in California’ legend, while delegating the assembly of the majority of its iPhones to Foxconn’s vast Shenzhen manufacturing plant.
In many ways, artificial intelligence (AI) has followed the same trajectory, with the people at the cutting edge of research all operating from North America. But while the US is leading the field in AI advancement, China is way ahead in terms of its practical implementation – which plays to the country’s strengths in data gathering, as well as in the quality, speed and execution of manufacturing. Industry expert Kai-Fu Lee has recently written about this topic at length, somewhat controversially predicting that it will be the companies who are able to use AI’s deep learning and pattern recognition powers to make viable products that will triumph – not those who are driving the initial breakthroughs.
Bringing innovations swiftly to market
It’s easy to see why China has a lot of success in bringing tech to market with speed and efficiency. It has a huge domestic market and a business climate that encourages the kind of willing-to-fail behaviour that is essential for a healthy start-up culture. Kai-Fu uses ride-sharing as an example of China’s approach to market-making, outlining the rapid exploration of a number of ride-share concepts from bicycles to concrete mixers which quickly – and, some would argue, inevitably – led to the creation of companies including successful unicorn, Mobike.
The so-called ‘fail fast’ approach in which prototypes are developed and adapted to suit commercial ideas – all the while accepting that the price of success will necessarily be a bunch of failures along the way – makes it simply more likely that successful businesses will ultimately emerge. So, while a particular technology – face-recognition, for instance – might be flagged as the basis for hundreds of applications, it only needs to hit the mark with one to become a billion-dollar solution. And, rather than being a hindrance to progress, the fierce competition that is part and parcel of the Chinese business ethos fuels the speed of development even further.
Leveraging China’s vast consumer base
In China, the early adoption of new technologies isn’t confined to a small percentage of savvy users, in fact the swift and widespread acceptance of the latest developments means that tech companies usually find a willing market for their ideas. This approach is evidenced by the population’s widespread transition to mobile payments over the last few years which is rapidly replacing other payment forms to become the dominant tool.
Naturally, the size and scale of China’s domestic market makes it more cost-effective for tech providers to address. But it also offers a rich source of data that allows AI engineers to inform and improve their solutions. Whereas the US may be squeamish about the privacy issues that go hand in hand with data mining, China has no such compunction. If the big shifts in the practical application of AI can be attributed to having access to massive amounts of data, China already has the advantage by dint of the fact that it is – according to The Economist– ‘the Saudi Arabia of data’.
Banking on government support
China’s AI developers also benefit from a deep well of government support. This isn’t simply about taking a protectionist approach that subsidises Chinese operations at the expense of foreign competitors. It’s also about creating an environment that provides a fertile growing medium for business – from the cities and roads that are primed for tech upgrades, to the low-regulation policies that enable new and unproven tech to enjoy a frictionless launch without getting bogged down in bureaucracy. The government has also invested heavily in research at China’s universities, increasing funding each year as it prioritises science and tech advancement.
Beijing continues to launch wave after wave of AI initiatives in a bid to boost an industry that is estimated to be worth north of $150bn over the next decade or so. China has committed more than $2bn to build an AI technology park in West Beijing that will house more than 400 companies and provide a platform for research and development.
Meanwhile, China’s tech giants – including Baidu and Tencent – are investing heavily in AI; Alibaba recently announced plans to earmark $15bn to build international labs focused on quantum computing and AI. Time was when China’s tech engineers would have headed for Silicon Valley to pursue their careers, whereas now there are increasing incentives for them to stay at home and transform China’s own AI industry. It’s an exciting time for China’s techpreneurs and for MBA students and executives looking to learn from practices at the cutting edge of the AI industry.